Most recent update: May 20, 2020
FDA-approved treatments for the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and its resulting COVID-19 disease are scarce and poor quality, but scientists and doctors have found many potential treatments that look promising.
Part of the problem is that SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 are recent and there has not been enough time for in-depth research or clinical trials. However, as the SARS-CoV-2 virus is very similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV coronaviruses, research done on those over the past decade or more is likely applicable.
Some promising options are already FDA-approved treatments for other conditions, but many may never be FDA-approved because they cannot be patented and sold for extreme profits. You may have to turn to alternative medicine practitioners or medical systems in countries less fascist than the US to get some such treatments.
This list is not intended to advocate for any of them or to prescribe anything for treatment. It is intended to refer you to information that discusses how various nutrients, herbs, pharmaceuticals, and other approaches may help people avoid infection or reduce risk for serious injury or death from viral infections.
Some of items on the list address nutrient deficiencies and high-risk comorbidities given the possibility that improving these conditions may reduce the risk of serious harm from COVID-19.
Please consult a competent medical provider and spend significant time of your own investigating anything listed here before trusting it is applicable, safe for you, and effective.
Every person is unique, with unique genetics and epigenetics, health status, diet, lifestyle, and environment. Therefore what works well for one person could be ineffective or even harm another.
The list will be updated as new information becomes available, so check back occasionally to see if there is something new.
General Background on Virus and Immune Support
Respiratory Immune Support: Focus on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19
Explains background information on virus including similar viruses and symptoms, available medical treatments, and provides brief information on several supplements that may be helpful.
Prevention and Treatment Recommendations Including Supplements As Suggested By Medical Doctors
Eastern Virginia Medical School Critical Care COVID-19 Management Protocol
A detailed protocol document developed by Dr. Paul Marik, MD.
COVID-19: Life-saving Strategies the New Media Will Never Tell You
Discussion of COVID-19 and its treatment by Dr. Paul Thomas MD.
Immune Support Supplements
Lactoferrin Helps Protect Against Viruses
Lactoferrin is a natural immune compound high in mother’s milk, especially colostrum. This article discusses lactoferrin’s broad effect in scientific studies against a wide range of viruses including SARS-CoV.
Immune-Boosting Effects of Melatonin
Melatonin is most well-known as a sleep-promoting hormone, but it also has many other effects including boosting immune system function in many ways.
Improving Mucosal Defenses Helps Resist Respiratory Tract Infections
Probiotic Phage Blend Fights Digestive Problems and Boosts Immune Defenses
Probiotics and bacteriophages can be used in supplement form to enhance mucosal barrier resistance to bacterial and viral pathogens and the mechanisms of action should work against pathogens in general. One study discussed evaluate effect on flu season infections and found (quoted from article):
The impact this probiotic treatment had on respiratory infections was not subtle! The number of flu and flu-like viral illnesses were reduced by an impressive 75%. The rate of colds—also a viral illness—was also reduced, by 39%.
Vaccines Raise Coronavirus Infection Risk
Pentagon Study: Flu Shot Raises Risk of Coronavirus by 36% (and Other Supporting Studies)
Flu vaccination raises the rates of coronavirus and non-influenza respiratory viral infections, thereby putting the population at higher risk of COVID-19 and other viral respiratory infections
Insulin Resistance Raises COVID-19 Risks
The Real Pandemic Is Insulin Resistance
Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for severe COVID-19 infections, especially deadly cytokine storms. People with type 2 diabetes are insulin resistant, but the problem in the US probably affects most of the population even if they have not been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
Air Pollution May Raise COVID-19 Risks
COVID-19 PM2.5: A national study on long-term exposure to air pollution and COVID-19 mortality in the United States
Results: We found that an increase of only 1 μg/m3 in PM2.5 is associated with an 8% increase in the COVID-19 death rate (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2%, 15%). The results were statistically significant and robust to secondary and sensitivity analyses.
Study Shows Link Between Fine Particle Air Pollution and COVID-19 Mortality
A Harvard study shows a statistical correlation between PM2.5 air pollution (particles 2.5 micrometers and smaller that can even get into bloodstream) and COVID-19 deaths.
For example, the study found that an individual living in a county for decades with high levels of PM2.5 is 15 percent more likely to die from the coronavirus than someone in a region with one unit less of the fine particulate pollution.
Problems With Mask and Social Distancing Recommendations
Scientists Find Coronavirus Can Linger In The Air Of Crowded Spaces Longer Than We Thought
WHO guidelines regarding when to wear a mask fail to account for virus staying airborne for long times
For social distancing to truly work, people would need to stand 26 feet apart, say researchers
New MIT study says that sneezes or coughs can create cloud of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles up to 23 to 27 feet from infected person, meaning 6 foot social distancing is not adequate for protection.
Connections with Zinc, Zinc Ionophores, and Zinc-Deficiency Diseases
New York Dr. Vladimir “Zev” Zelenko Reports Success Against COVID-19 With Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, and Zinc
Discusses early results using hydroxychloroquine, zinc, and azithromycin to treat COVID-19 patients in New York City
Coronavirus: Debunking The Hydroxychloroquine ‘Controversy’ (Dr. Chris Martenson)
Some recent scientific studies are showing that hydroxychloroquine does not work but they are using incorrect treatment protocols that lack zinc that some doctors claim is necessary for the zinc ionophore effect of chloroquine to raise intracellular levels of zinc to slow or block viral replication.
Small Molecules Blocking the Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus into Host Cells
Discusses lab test results of tetra-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (TGG), luteolin, and quercetin at binding SARS-CoV spike protein and blocking host cell infection
Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture.
Discusses lab test findings of zinc and zinc ionophores at blocking SARS-CoV and other RNA virus replication
Zinc supplementation decreases incidence of infections in the elderly: effect of zinc on generation of cytokines and oxidative stress.
Discusses findings that zinc supplementation in elderly reduces infections and oxidative stress markers
Dietary zinc and the control of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection
Using a mouse model of bacterial pneumonia, researchers show that zinc deficiency markedly decreases the immune system ability to control bacterial infection. As pneumonia and bacterial co-infections are major concurrent risks for COVID-19 patients, this is another way that zinc is important ot health.
Maintaining normal zinc levels helps protect elderly from pneumonia
Sufficient zinc can help elderly strengthen immune systems and anti-oxidant systems for protection against illnesses such as pneumonia, lower all-cause death rates, and reduce usage of antibiotics
Zinc ionophore activity of quercetin and epigallocatechin-gallate: from Hepa 1-6 cells to a liposome model
Quercetin and EGCG (from green tea) can raise zinc levels in cell
Can Quercetin or EGCG Reduce the Risk of COVID-19?
Discusses thinking that quercetin and EGCG cannot reach high enough plasma concentrations to acts as zinc ionophores in humans, but that quercetin may act against SARS-CoV-2 by inhibiting viral 3CL protease needed for viral replication
Emergency Room Doctor Doesn’t Realize Major Signs & Symptoms of COVID-19 Coronavirus Cases Match Evidences Of Zinc Deficiency
Discusses similarities of symptoms of zinc deficiency and SARS-CoV-2 infection
Zinc, copper, and blood pressure: Human population studies
Discusses observed patterns of correlation between zinc and copper status and hypertension (high blood pressure) which is a major risk factor for COVID-19 mortality
Inflammatory Cytokine Storms
Melatonin for Sepsis
Discusses the benefits of melatonin against sepsis and cytokine storms, conditions believed to be frequently related to COVID-19 deaths, and possible role of glyphosate at reducing body’s ability to build melatonin hormone and to clear SARS-CoV-2 viral infections in the lungs
Doctor on ventilator from COVID-19 saved by Actemra arthritis drug and vitamin C therapy
Cytokine storm from immune overreaction nearly caused doctor’s death, saved by drug plus vitamin therapy that suppresses cytokine storms
“Appropriate vaccines and antiviral drugs for the Covid19 epidemic are not available. IV Vitamin C and other antioxidants are extremely good agents for ARDS. These can be applied clinically. Importantly, high dose IV Vit-C is safe and effective. In this paper, we review the use of high-dose Vit-C as an efficient method of treatment for patients with cancers and infections.”
Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus
Licorice root including glycyrrhizin looks promising, as the study says: “In addition to inhibition of virus replication, glycyrrhizin inhibits adsorption and penetration of the virus — early steps of the replicative cycle.”
Possible Inexpensive Drug Therapies
The FDA-approved Drug Ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro
Discusses lab test results showing that the anti-parasitic drug ivermectin can cause rapid reduction of SARS-CoV-2 viral loads (note that Ivermection is not FDA approved for COVID-19 for whatever that is worth)
A Plausible “Penny” Costing Effective Treatment for Corona Virus – Ozone Therapy
Doctors Robert Rowen and Howard Robins discuss the history and mechanisms of ozone therapy, how it is safe, inexpensive, and low-tech so easily used anywhere, how the body itself generates ozone for immune system function, and the benefits ozone therapy shows against viruses including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, Ebola, Norwalk, collophage MS3, hepatitis A, poliovirus, HIV-1, cytomegalovirus, and others
Spain finds that ozone therapy works well against COVID-19
Ozone therapy improves blood oxygenation and fights inflammation, prevents patients being put on ventilators
Hypoxia and Misuse of Ventilators
New York reports 88% death rate among coronavirus patients put on ventilators
For many COVID-19 patients, ventilators may be a death sentence because they damage lungs with high pressure but fail to raise blood oxygen levels adequately.
Coronavirus kills patients SILENTLY – even before they show symptoms
COVID-19 patients can be experiencing severe hypoxia (low blood oxygen) even before obvious feelings of breathlessness or pneumonia symptoms start. Monitoring of COVID-19 patients with a pulse oximeter is advised even if the patients do not have serious symptoms.
Bombshell plea from NYC ICU doctor: COVID-19 is a condition of oxygen deprivation, not pneumonia… VENTILATORS may be causing the lung damage, not the virus
New York ICU doctor explains that COVID-19 patients often have very low blood oxygen (hypoxia) without symptoms of pneumonia and treating them with ventilators programmed to deliver significant pressure is likely to injure their lungs and lead to worse outcomes
Ultraviolet Light Disinfection
Cedars-Sinai to use UV light to treat coronavirus
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center has licensed UV-A disinfection technology it has developed to Aytu BioScience, Inc. for worldwide commercialization and sales. This technology may help improve the safety of ventilators by helping to disinfect them of pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. Testing shows it can disable SARS-CoV-2 virus.
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for COVID-19
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy was used successfully for the 1918 flu pandemic, and is now being used for COVID-19 in China and the US. This therapy helps increase oxygen saturation in tissues throughout the body even in severely ill patients with damaged lungs. It appears to be safer and more effective than ventilators which seem to overall increase the risk of death.
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